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When replay detection is enabled, sequence numbers are never reused, because a new security association must be renegotiated before an attempt to increment the sequence number beyond its maximum value.Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) is a member of the IPsec protocol suite.This restriction does not apply to an Authentication Header carried in an IPv4 packet.A monotonic strictly increasing sequence number (incremented by 1 for every packet sent) to prevent replay attacks.It provides origin authenticity through source authentication, data integrity through hash functions and confidentiality through encryption protection for IP packets.ESP also supports encryption-only and authentication-only configurations, but using encryption without authentication is strongly discouraged because it is insecure.Later, in December 1993, the Software IP Encryption protocol sw IPe (protocol) was researched at Columbia University and AT&T Bell Labs by John Ioannidis and others.

In the late 1980s, US NIST developed a set of security protocols for the Internet.

AH also guarantees the data origin by authenticating IP packets.

Optionally a sequence number can protect the IP sec packet's contents against replay attacks, The length of this Authentication Header in 4-octet units, minus 2.

The original IETF specifications are in RFC-1825 through RFC-1827, which published in 1995.

The official spelling of the protocol name is IPsec.

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